Type 2 Diabetes Bibliography

  
Alvarsson M, Sundkvist G, Lager I, et al. Beneficial effects of insulin versus sulphonylurea on insulin secretion and metabolic control in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2231-2237. [abstract]
 
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology. Statement on the use of A1C for the diagnosis of diabetes. February 2010. Available at: http://www.aace.com/pub/pdf/guidelines/AACEpositionA1cfeb2010.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2010.
 
American Diabetes Association: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:S11-S61. [abstract]
 
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(suppl 1):S12-S54. [abstract]
 
American Diabetes Association. Self-monitoring of blood glucose. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:81-86. [abstract]
 
Bailey CJ, Turner RC. Metformin.N Engl J Med. 1996;334:574-579. [abstract]
 
Balasubramanyam A, Zern JW, Hyman DJ, Pavlik V. New profiles of diabetic ketoacidosis: type 1 vs type 2 diabetes and the effect of ethnicity. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2317-2322. [abstract]
 
Beck A, Scott J, Williams P, et al. A randomized trial of group outpatient visits for chronically ill older HMO members: the Cooperative Health Care Clinic. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45:543-549. [abstract]
 
Bijlstra PJ, Lutterman JA, Russel FG, et al. Interaction of sulphonylurea derivatives with vascular ATP-sensitive potassium channels in humans. Diabatelogica. 1996;39:1083-1090. [abstract]
 
Bloomgarden ZT, Dodis R, Viscoli CM, Holmboe ES, Inzucchi SE. Lower baseline glycemia reduces apparent oral agent glucose-lowering efficacy: a meta-regression analysis. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2137-2139. [abstract]
 
Bodenheimer T. Building teams in primary care: lessons from 15 case studies [includes downloads]. Available at: http://www.chcf.org/publications/2007/07/building-teams-in-primary-care-lessons-from-15-case-studies. Accessed May 22, 2010.
 
Bodenheimer T, Laing BY. The Teamlet model of primary care. Ann Fam Med. 2007;5:457-461. [abstract]
 
Bodenheimer T. Helping patients improve their health-related behaviors: what system changes do we need? Dis Manag. 2005;8:319-330. [abstract]
 
Bonomi AE, Wagner EH, Glasgow RE, Von Korff M. Assessment of chronic illness care [ACIC]: a practical tool to measure quality improvement. Health Serv Res. 2002;37:791-820. [abstract]
 
Brown JB, Conner C, Nichols GA. Secondary failure of metformin monotherapy in clinical practice. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:501-506. [abstract]
Calabrese AT, Coley KC, DaPos SV, et al. Evaluation of prescribing practices: risk of lactic acidosis with metformin therapy. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:434-437. [abstract]
 
Center for Studying Health System Change. Physician survey. Available at: http://www.hschange.com/index.cgi?file=cts1. Accessed May 6, 2010.
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: general information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2007. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2008. [article]
 
Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M; STOP-NIDDM Trial Research Group. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet. 2002;359:2072-2077. [abstract]
 
Ciechanowski PS, Katon WJ, Russo JE. Depression and diabetes: impact of depressive symptoms on adherence, function, and costs. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3278-3285. [abstract]
 
Daniel DM, Norman J, Davis C, et al. A state-level application of the chronic illness breakthrough series: results from two collaboratives on diabetes in Washington State. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2004;30:69-79. [abstract]
 
Daniel DM, Norman J, Davis C, et al. Case studies from two collaboratives on diabetes in Washington State. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2004;30:103-108. [abstract
 
Davis M. Variations in patients’ compliance with doctors’ advice: an empirical analysis of patterns of communication. Am J Publ Health. 1969;58:274-288. [abstract]
 
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:977-986. [abstract]
 
Dixon JB, O’Brien PE. Health outcomes of severely obese type 2 diabetic subjects 1 year after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:358-363. [abstract]
 
Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al; VADT Investigators. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:129-139. [abstract] Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1024-1025,1028.
 
Dunbar-Jacob J. Contributions to patient adherence: is it time to share the blame? Health Psychol. 1993;12:93-102. [abstract]
 
Egede LE, Zheng D, Simpson K. Comorbid depression is associated with increased health care use and expenditures in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:464-470. [abstract]
 
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Maiorino MI, et al. Addition of neutral protamine lispro insulin or insulin glargine to oral type 2 diabetes regimens for patients with suboptimal glycemic control: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:531-539. [abstract]
 
Evans P, Langley P, Gray DP. Diagnosing type 2 diabetes before patients complain of diabetic symptoms—clinical opportunistic screening in a single general practice. Fam Pract. 2008;25:376-381. [abstract]
 
Farmer A, Wade A, Goyder E, et al. Impact of self monitoring of blood glucose in the management of patients with non-insulin treated diabetes: open parallel group randomised trial. BMJ. 2007;335:132. [abstract]
 
Feig DS, Palda VA, Lipscombe L. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus to prevent vascular complications: updated recommendations from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. CMAJ. 2005;172:177-180. [abstract]
 
Fisher EB, Thorpe CT, Devellis BM, Devellis RF. Healthy coping, negative emotions, and diabetes management: a systematic review and appraisal. Diabetes Educ. 2007;33:1080-1083; discussion 1104-1106. [abstract]
 
Ford ES, Li C, Sattar N. Metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes: current state of the evidence. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1898-904. [abstract]
 
Fox CS, Pencina MJ, Meigs JB, et al. Trends in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus from the 1970s to the 1990s: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2006;113:2914-2918. [abstract]
 
Garber AJ. Premixed insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2006;66:31-49. [abstract]
 
Geisen K, Vegh A, Krause E., Papp JG.  Cardiovascular effects of conventional sulfonylureas and glimepiride.  Horm Metab Res. 1996;28: 496-507.[abstract]
 
Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RD, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2545-2559.[abstract]
 
Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Bosch J, et al. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;368:1096-1105. [abstract]
 
Glümer C, Carstensen B, Sandbaek A, et al. A Danish diabetes risk score for targeted screening: the Inter99 study. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:727-733. [abstract]
 
Golden SH, Lazo M, Carnethon M, et al. Examining a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and diabetes. JAMA. 2008;299:2751-2759. [abstract]
 
Golden SH. A review of the evidence for a neuroendocrine link between stress, depression and diabetes mellitus. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2007;3:252-259. [abstract]
 
Group Health Research Institute. Assessment of care for chronic conditions [PACIC survey]. 2004. Available at: http://www.improvingchroniccare.org/index.php?p=PACIC_survey&s=36. Accessed May 21, 2010.
 
Haller MJ, Atkinson MA, Schatz D.  Type 1 diabetes mellitus: etiology, presentation, and management.   Pediatr Clin N Am. 2005; 52:1553-1578.[abstract]
 
Hanson RL, Imperatore G, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Components of the “metabolic syndrome” and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2002;51:3120-3127. [abstract]
 
Heine RJ, Van Gaal LF, Johns D, Mihm MJ, Widel MH, Brodows RG; GWAA Study Group. Exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:559-569. [abstract]
 
Heisler M, Bouknight RR, Hayward RA, et al. The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision-making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:243-252. [abstract]
 
Hermansen K, Davies M, Derezinski T, Martinez Ravn G, Clauson P, Home P. A 26-week, randomized, parallel, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin as add-on therapy to oral glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1269-1274. [abstract]
 
Ho M, Marger M, Beart J, et al. Is the quality of diabetes care better in a diabetes clinic or in a general medicine clinic? Diabetes Care. 1997;20:472-475. [abstract]
 
Holman RR, Farmer AJ, Davies MJ, et al; 4-T Study Group. Three-year efficacy of complex insulin regimens in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1736-1747. [abstract]
 
Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1577-1589. [abstract]
 
Horvath K, Jeitler K, Berghold A, et al. Long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin (human isophane insulin) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD005613. [abstract]
 
Ilkova H, Glaser B, Tunckale A, et al. Induction of long-term glycemic control in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients by transient intensive insulin treatment. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:1353-1356. [abstract]
 
Improving Chronic Illness Care. Our approach. 2010. Available at: http://www.improvingchroniccare.org/. Accessed May 6, 2010.
 
International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1327-1334. [abstract]
 
Ismail K, Winkley K, Rabe-Hesketh S. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of psychological interventions to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Lancet. 2004;363:1589-1597. [abstract]
 
Jaber R, Braksmajer A, Trilling JS. Group visits: a qualitative review of current research. J Am Board Fam Med. 2006;19:276-290. [abstract]
 
Jackson GL, Edelman D, Weinberger M. Simultaneous control of intermediate diabetes outcomes among Veterans Affairs primary care patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:1050-1056. [abstract]
 
Johns Hopkins Health Alerts. Diabetes special report. Is it type 2 diabetes or LADA? July 2009. Available at: http://www.johnshopkinshealthalerts.com/reports/diabetes/1366-1.html. Accessed May 5, 2010.
 
Kahn SE, Haffner SM, Heise MA, et al. Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2427-2443. [abstract]
 
Katon W, Russo J, Lin EH, et al. Depression and diabetes: factors associated with major depression at five-year follow-up. Psychosomatics. 2009;50:570-579. [abstract]
 
Knowler WC, Hamman RF, Edelstein SL, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Prevention of type 2 diabetes with troglitazone in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes. 2005;54:1150-1156. [abstract]
 
Knowler WC, Barrett-Conner E, Fowler SE, et al, for the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;344:393-403. [abstract]
 
Levy P. Insulin analogs or premixed insulin analogs in combination with oral agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Medscape Gen Med. [Epub 2007 April 16.] [abstract]
 
Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, et al. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet. 2008;371:1783-1789. [abstract]
 
Ligthelm R, Davidson J. Initiating insulin in primary care--the role of modern premixed formulations. Prim Care Diabetes. 2008;2:9-16.[abstract]
 
Lin EH, Heckbert SR, Rutter CM, et al. Depression and increased mortality in diabetes: unexpected causes of death. Ann Fam Med. 2009;7:414-421. [abstract]
 
Lin EH, Katon W, Von Korff M, et al. Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2154-2160. [abstract]
 
Lorig KR, Sobel DS, Stewart AL, et al. Evidence suggesting that chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing hospitalization: a randomized trial. Med Care. 1999;37:5-14. [abstract]
 
Ludman EJ, Katon W, Russo J, et al. Depression and diabetes symptom burden. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004;26:430-436. [abstract]
 
Lustman PJ, Penckofer SM, Clouse RE. Recent advances in understanding depression in adults with diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2007;7:114-122. [abstract]
 
Lutgens MW, Meijer M, Peeters B, et al. Easily obtainable clinical features increase the diagnostic accuracy for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: an evidence-based report. Prim Care Diabetes. 2008;2:207-211. [abstract]
 
Macarthur Initiative on Depression and Primary Care. Sample PHQ-9. Available at: http://www.depression-primarycare.org/clinicians/toolkits/materials/forms/phq9/. Accessed March 24, 2010.
 
Marvel MK, Epstein RM, Flowers K, Beckman HB. Soliciting the patient’s agenda: have we improved? JAMA. 1999;281:283-287. [abstract]
 
Masley S, Sokoloff J, Hawes C.  Planning group visits for high risk patients.  Fam Pract Manag. 2000; 7:33-37. [abstract]
 
McCormack J, Johns K, Tildesley H.  Metformin's contraindications should be contraindicated.  CMAJ. 2005; 173:502-504.[article]
 
McCulloch DK, Price MJ, Hindmarsh M, Wagner EH. A population-based approach to diabetes management in a primary care setting: early results and lessons learned. Eff Clin Pract. 1998;1:12-22. [abstract]
 
McCulloch DK, Price MJ, Hindmarsh M, Wagner EH. Improvement in diabetes care using an integrated population-based approach in a primary care setting. Dis Manag. 2000;3:75-82. [abstract not available]
 
Miller CD, Phillips LS, Ziemer DC, et al. Hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 2005;161:1653-1659. [abstract]
 
Minton PR. Setting the agenda for the clinical interview. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:766-770. [abstract]
 
Mocanu MM, Maddock HL, Baxter GF, et al.  Glimepiride, a novel sulfonylurea, does not aboloish myocardial protection afforded by either ischemic preconditioning or diazoxide.  Circulation. 1001;103:311-3116.  [abstract]
 
Monnier L, Lapinski H, Colette C. Contributions of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose increments to the overall diurnal hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetic patients.Diabetes Care. 2003;26:881-885. [abstract]
 
Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:193-203. [abstract]
 
Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: update regarding thiazolidinediones: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:173-175. [abstract]
 
Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MD, et al.  Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.  Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1963-1972.
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002;106:3143-3421. [abstract
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Diabetes overview. November 2008. NIH publication No. 09-3873. [article]
 
NAVIGATOR Study Group. Effect of nateglinide on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1463-1476. [abstract]
 
Norris, SL, Lau, J, Smith, SJ, et al. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1159-1171. [abstract]
 
Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28:103-117. [abstract]
 
Ortiz DD. Using a simple patient registry to improve your chronic disease care. Fam Pract Manag. 2006;13:47-52. [article]
 
Palmer JP, Flemin GA, Greenbaum CJ, et al.  C-peptide is the appropriate outcome measure for type 1 diabetes clinical trials to preseve β-cell function.  Report of an ADA workship, 21-22 October, 2001.  Diabetes. 2004;53:250-264.  [abstract]
 
Park S, Choi SB. Induction of long-term normoglycemia without medication in Korean type 2 diabetes patients after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2003;19:124-130. [abstract]
 
Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al, for the ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560-2572. [abstract]
 
Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Lauritzen T, et al. Resistance to insulin therapy among patients and providers: results of the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) study. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2673-2679. [abstract]
 
Plank J, Siebenhofer A, Berghold A, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of short-acting insulin analogues in patients with diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1337-1344.
[abstract]
 
Polonsky KS, Given BD, Hirsch LJ, et al. Abnormal patterns of insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:1231-1239. [abstract]
 
Qaseem A, Snow V, Denberg TD, et al. Using second-generation antidepressants to treat depressive disorders: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:725-733. [abstract]
 
Qayyum R, Bolen S, Maruthur N, et al. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and safety of premixed insulin analogues in type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med.2008;149:549-559. [abstract]
 
Reid RJ, Fishman PA, Yu O, et al. Patient-centered medical home demonstration: a prospective, quasi-experimental, before and after evaluation. Am J Manag Care. 2009;15:e71-e87. [abstract]
 
Ren JM, Semenkovich CF, Gulve EA, et al. Exercise induces rapid increases in GLUT4 expression, glucose transport capacity, and insulin-stimulated glycogen storage in muscle. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:14396-14401. [abstract]
 
Riddle MC, Rosenstock J, Gerich J; Insulin Glargine 4002 Study Investigators. The treat-to-target trial: randomized addition of glargine or human NPH insulin to oral therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:3080-3086. [abstract]
 
Rizvi AA, Ligthelm RJ. The use of premixed insulin analogues in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: advantages and limitations. Insulin. 2007;2:68-79. [abstract]
 
Rodbard HW, Jellinger PS, Davidson JA, et al. Statement by an American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus panel on type 2 diabetes mellitus: an algorithm for glycemic control. Endocr Pract. 2009;15:541-559. [abstract]
 
Rodbard HW, Blonde L, Braithwaite S, et al, for the AACE Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Practice Guidelines Task Force. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2007;13:1-68. [abstract]
 
Rosenstock J, Dailey G, Massi-Benedetti M, et al. Reduced hypoglycemia risk with insulin glargine: a meta-analysis comparing insulin glargine with human NPH insulin in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:950-955. [abstract]
 
Roter DL, Hall JA.  Studies of doctor-patient interaction.  Annu Rev Public Health. 1989; 10:163-180. [abstract]
 
Russell-Jones D, Vaag A, Schmitz O, et al; Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes 5 (LEAD-5) met+SU Study Group. Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2046-2055. [abstract]
 
Saaddine JB, Cadwell B, Gregg EW, et al. Improvements in diabetes processes of care and intermediate outcomes: United States, 1988-2002. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:465-474. [abstract]
 
Salpeter SR, Buckley NS, Kahn JA, Salpeter EE. Meta-analysis: metformin treatment in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 2008;121:149-157. [abstract]
 
Schaefer J, Miller D, Goldstein M, Simmons L. Partnering in Self-Management Support: A Toolkit for Clinicians. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2009. [monograph]
 
Sharplin P, Gordon J, Peters JR, Tetlow AP, Longman AJ, McEwan P. Improved glycaemic control by switching from insulin NPH to insulin glargine: a retrospective observational study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009;8:3. [abstract]
 
Shaw JS, Wilmot RL, Kilpatrick ES. Establishing pragmatic estimated GFR thresholds to guide metformin prescribing.  Diabet Med. 2007;24:1160-1163. [abstract]
 
Singh SR, Ahmad F, Lal A, et al. Efficacy and safety of insulin analogues for the management of diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009;180:385-397. [abstract]
 
Snyder RW, Berns JS. Use of insulin and oral hypoglycemic medications in patients with diabetes mellitus and advanced kidney disease. Semin Dial. 2004;17;365-370.[abstract]
 
Soni A. Tests and treatments among the adult U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population, 2007. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; November 2009. Available at: http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/st269/stat269.shtml. Accessed May 6, 2010.
 
Stanford School of Medicine. Diabetes self-management program. Available at: http://patienteducation.stanford.edu/programs/diabeteseng.html. Accessed May 21, 2010.
 
Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ. 2000;321:405-412. [abstract]
 
Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al, for the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1343-1350. [abstract]
 
Turner RC, Cull CA, Frighi V, Holman RR, for the UK Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS] Group. Glycemic control with diet, sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: progressive requirement for multiple therapies (UKPDS 49). JAMA. 1999;281:2005-2012. [abstract]
 
UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group: Effect of intensive blood glucose control with metformin on complication in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998;352:854-865. [abstract]
 
UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group: Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352:837-853. [abstract]
 
UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. UK Prospective Diabetes Study 16. Overview of 6 years’ therapy of type II diabetes: a progressive disease. Diabetes. 1995;44:1249-1258. [abstract]
 
Umpierrez GE. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes: time to revise the classification of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2755-2757. [article]
 
US Department of Health and Human Services' National Diabetes Education Program.  Overview of diabetes in children and adolescents.  August 2008. [article]
 
US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008:148:846-854. [abstract]
 
Von Korff M, Katon W, Lin EH, et al. Work disability among individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1326-1332. [abstract]
 
Wagner EH, Austin BT, Davis C, et al. Improving chronic illness care: translating evidence into action. Health Aff (Millwood). 2001;20:64-78. [abstract]
 
Wagner EH, Glasgow RE, Davis C, et al. Quality improvement in chronic illness care: a collaborative approach. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 2001;27:63-80. [abstract]
 
Weinberger M, Kirkman S, Samsa GP, et al. A nurse-coordinated intervention for primary care patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Gen Intern Med. 1995;10:59-66. [abstract]
 
Weng J, Li Y, Xu W, et al. Effect of intensive insulin therapy on beta-cell function and glycaemic control in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a multicentre randomised parallel-group trial. Lancet. 2008;371:1753-1760. [abstract]
 
Weyer C, Tataranni PA, Bogardus C, Pratley RE. Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction are independent predictors of worsening glucose tolerance during each stage of type 2 diabetes development. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:89-94. [abstract]
 
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Wright A, Burden AC, Paisey RB, Cull CA, Holman RR; UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Sulfonylurea inadequacy: efficacy of addition of insulin over 6 years in patients with type 2 diabetes in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 57). Diabetes Care. 2002;25:330-336. [abstract] Erratum in: Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1268.
 
Wulffele MG, Kooy A, Leher P, et al. Combination of insulin and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2133-2140. [abstract]
 
Yamanouchi T, Sakai T, Igarashi K, et al. Comparison of metabolic effects of pioglitazone metformin, and glimepiride over 1 year in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2005;22:980-985. [abstract]
 
Yki-Jarvinen H, Juurinen L, Alvarsson M, et al. Initiate Insulin by Aggressive Titration and Education (INITIATE): a randomized study to compare initiation of insulin combination therapy in type 2 diabetic patients individually and in groups. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1364-1369. [article]
 
Zammitt NN, Frier BM. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2948-2961. [abstract]

 

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